Lev Manovich created these images using AI image synthesis software Midjourney v4. This version offered significant improvements over previous versions - images it generates became more realistic, detailed and spatially coherent. They also tend to be more stereotypical, full of clichés, too spectacular, and often are pure kitsch. The term “kitsch” “originated in the art markets of Munich, Germany in the 1860s and the 1870s, describing cheap, popular, and marketable pictures and sketches." (Wikipedia) For Walter Benjamin, kitsch "offers instantaneous emotional gratification without intellectual effort, without the requirement of distance, without sublimation."